AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC is a variable contrast
black-and-white photo paper on fibre base.
The contrast is varied by colour filters.
If the standard contrast control filters are
used, it is possible to vary the contrast simply, without the trouble of
converting the exposure times.
The contrast range is similar to that of conven
tional fixed-contrast papers. MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC can therefore replace
all paper grades from extra soft to extra hard.
The paper can be exposed on any enlarger and
processed in dishes like conventional BW fibre base paper.
MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC provides print
quality which matches conventional BW fibre base photo papers.
The discriminating consumer too can now enjoy the advantages
and convenience of a variable contrast black-and-white paper in all fields
of pictorial photography.
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC is available as sheets in all the standard
formats. up to 50.8 x 61 cm. Wide rolls (127 cm wide) are available for
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC MC C 111 FB (glossy, double weight)
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC MC C 1 FB (glossy, single weight)
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC MC C 118 FB (fine grain matt, double weight)
Special formats can be supplied on request.
Minimal variations in the dimensions/sizes are possible - due to cutting
tolerances and expansion effects (to DIN 4506 Part 1 and ISO 1008).
Information on the Agfa black-and-white photo papers with fixed contrast
are given in the Technical Data P-50-P. Information on MULTICONTRAST PREMIUM
(variable contrast BW paper on RC/PE base) is summarised in Technical Data
The original packaging protects the paper from light and brief exposure
to humidity and fumes.
The inside packaging for sheets and rolls consists of lightproof PE
bags or PE foils. The outside packaging is an orange cardboard wallet or
a box with a tongued lid for sheets, and a corrugated cardboard tongued
box for rolls.
The outside packaging alone does not provide adequate pro tection from
light. Use both the inside and outside packaging for storing paper in opened
Black-and-white photo papers should be kept cool, dry and protected
from harmful fumes. Temperatures under 20 C and a relative humidity of
50 % to 60 % ensure that the papers will keep well over a very long period.
Opened packs should be closed well after use (inside and outside packaging),
and if possible not stored in darkrooms or other wet rooms, only in cool
and dry areas.
The natural ageing process of photopapers is considerably retarded
by refrigeration or deep freezing. The paper must however be taken out
of cold storage some hours before use, and brought up to room temperature.
In addition to the codes of the various paper types, the paper weight,
tinting and surface characteristics are indicated by the following numerical
Coding of base weight
The base tint is indicated by the second figure (not given for single-weight
types such as MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC 1 and RECORD RAPID 1).
|1 . .
||= double weight fibre-base paper (FB)
|3 . .
||= polyethylene-coated paper (RC)
. 1 . = white paper tint
Coding of surface
|. . 0
|| = glossy, natural high gloss (only for RC papers)
| . . 1
||= glossy, smooth surface suitable for high-gloss drying
(only for fibre-base papers)
|. . 2
|| = semi-matt
|. . 8
|| = fine-grain matt
The labels are colour coded (by bars) as follows:
|MC C 111
|| - MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC,
double weight, white, glossy
| MC C 1
|| - MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC,
single weight, white, glossy
||= light blue
|1 and 111
|| - mauve
||- light brown
A UPC bar code is printed on the labels (sheets).
|| - mauve
A product coding is printed on the label. It consists of the
five place ABC code. This is followed by the emulsion number and
some code letters serving internal inspection purposes.
An internal order number starting with an X is printed on the second
The first code line should always be given in enquiries and complaints.
The second code line provides helpful information for internal investigations.
Fibre-base papers contain a layer of barium sulphate (baryta) between the
base and emulsion. This baryta layer stops the emulsion soaking into the
paper surface, and so enhances the detail definition and print blacks.
|Baryta paper, single weight
|| 185 g/m2
|| approx. 150 ìm
| Baryta paper, double weight
|| 283 g/m2
|| approx. 258 ìm
The baryta coating is 20 - 45 g/mz depending on surface.
The light-sensitive layer contains a fine-grain silver chloro bromide
Silver content: approx. 1.5 g/m2
The two supercoats protect the paper from friction fogging and physical
Maximum density (blackness)
Depending on the surface, and assuming correct exposure and development,
the following maximum densities at least can be reached:
The lower maximum density of MC C 118 is due to the technique used for
measuring the matt surface.
|MC C 1 / MCC 111
|| DmaX = 2.30
| MC C 118
|| DmaX = 1.60
The exposure given in tux seconds applies to the combination of paper and
||tungsten light 3000 K, time: 10 sec.
|| contrast control filters 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 and
UV blocking filter
|| AGFA MULTICONTRAST DEVELOPER
||read with visual filter (Vë)
(related to equal-energy spectrum)
The graph below shows the densities of 0.5 (I), 1 .0 (II) and 1 .5
(III) measured in reflection. the sensitivity is the reciprocal of the
exposure (in ml/m2) needed to produce the relevant densities.
(to ISO Standard 6846)
MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC has a speed of ISO P 400 when exposed to white
light (without filter). The contrast then reached is about equivalent to
the contrast with filter "2".
If contrast control filters are used, the speed is:
Halving the ISO figure corresponds to halving the speed, and doubling it
doubles the speed.
for the "0" to "3'h" filters - ISO P 160
for the "4" his "5" filters - ISO P 80
The reciprocity characteristics of AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC
are virtually unrelated to the filtration. The photo graphic speed falls
slightly as the exposures lengthen, while the contrast remains nearly constant.
Latent image characteristics
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC has outstanding latent image features. The
speed and contrast remain virtually unchanged, regardless of the filtration,
for a period of up to three days.
Exposure and contrast control
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC can be exposed on all standard enlargers
(with or without colour mixing heads), and on enlargers with special modules
for variable-contrast papers. As can be seen from the spectral sensitivity
curves (see page 4), MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC is sensitized both to the blue
and green spectral ranges. The contrast grading is set by selective colour
The contrast grading can therefore be varied virtually continuously, from
extra-hard to extra-soft, depending on the blue and green light content
of the exposure.
Magenta filtration affects only the blue spectral range and produces steep
Yellow filtration affects the green spectral range and produces flat
The following methods are suitable for varying the contrast:
1. Standard commercial filter sets for variable-contrast black-and-white
They are available as:
The "0" to "5" filter designations correspond to the grade numbers of conventional
black-and-white photo papers. Each filter set includes extra filters with
intermediate values, for fine corrections.
filter foils for use in the filter drawer of the enlarger
(in several formats), or
filter set with adapter for mounting under the enlarger lens,
or on the red filter pin of the enlarger.
The right grade is found by producing a series of text ex posures with
The filters are designed to require the same exposure time, as found by
testing, when the "0" to "3'/z" filters are used. This time has to be doubled
for the "4", "4'/z" and "5" filters.
for contrasty negatives filters "0" to "1 "
for negatives with normal contrast range filters "2" to "3"
for low-contrast negatives filters "4" to "5".
If the exposure time is found with the "4", "4'/z" or "5" filters,
the time for a softer grade (i.e. filters "3'/2" to "0") has to be halved.
MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC offers the great advantage that individual areas
of negatives which are tricky to enlarge can be exposed with different
contrast control filters (e.g. for landscapes the sky areas with the "1"
filter, and the rest of the image with "4" filter). Partial re-exposure
and shading witti filters will not only balance differences in brightness
within one negative, they will also produce partial variations in contrast.
Exposure without filters
MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC can also be exposed without filters. In this case
the resulting contrast grade is "2", and the speed is more than doubled
or the exposure time shortened by more than half )
2. Yellow and magenta filters in colour mixing heads
The manufacturers' filter density ratings are not identical. The exposure
time has to be converted or found for each filter. The entire contrast
range is not covered by some colour mixing heads.
3. Vario-contrast modules
Vario-contrast modules with filters and computer logic are available
as add-ons for enlargers, to find the exposure time required in each case.
4. Colour printing filters (yellow and magenta)
The contrast of MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC can also be varied with
the subtractive printing filters in a printing filter set. The disadvantages
of this method are a partial reduction in the contrast range, and the necessity
to convert the exposure times.
Exposing and filtering MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC
* Basic grade ("Special') of AGFA MULTICONTRAST
CLASSIC which can also be achieved without filtering. The effective
speed is then ISO P 400.
|Grade and grade numbers as for graded papers
|Real speed of
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC (ISO 6846) without Filter
|ISO P 400
|Contrast control filters
|Effective speed of
AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC (ISO 6846) with
|ISO P 160
||ISO P 80
Filtration with colour printing filters or colour mixing heads
* Exposure factors must be individually found by test
exposures. (Y= yellow filter, M= magenta filter)
|Contrast control filter
|Filtering with Kodak CP or CC filters *
|| 80 Y
|| 55 Y
|| 30 Y
|| 15 Y
|| 25 M
|| 40 M
|| 65 M
|| 100 M
|| 150 M
|| 200 M
|Filtering with Durst colour mixing head *(test with Durst
CLS 501 )
|| 60 Y
|| 45 Y
|| 30 Y
|| 10 Y
|| 20 M
|| 30 M
|| 50 M
|| 70 M
|| 100 M
|| 130 M
All the filtrations are guides only. They depend on the
combination of the characteristics and state of the filters, the enlarging
lamp (age) and the enlarger (plus mixing head).
Further filter characteristics can be obtained from the
The print tone is primarily a characteristic of the emulsion. It depends
on the size and structure of the processed image silver. Large grains of
silver produce a colder print tone, and finer grain structures a warmer
tone. The tone of black and white photo papers can be varied within narrow
limits by the development and special treatment.
The print tone of AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC can be varied within limits.
In cold-tone developer (e.g. NEUTOL BL) MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC produces
a slightly cold tone, in neutral-tone developers (e.g. MULTICONTRAST DEVELOPER)
a neutral tone, and in warm-tone developers (e.g. AGFA NEUTOL LIOUID WA)
a more warm-black tone.
The print tone of black-and-white photo papers can in addition be influenced
by the following factors:
When the paper hardens during lengthy storage, the print tone becomes generally
I The tone may change as the developer becomes exhausted. The slightest
contamination of the developer with thio sulphate makes the tone initially
slightly warmer. Worse contamination on the other hand makes the tone colder,
and there is also an increased tendency to fogging.
If the intermediate wash is insufficient, or the stop bath is very exhausted,
the blacks may turn blue.
Too long fixing times, variations in concentration and contamination of
the fixer affect the original tone.
Too short or much too long final washes (several hours) may change the
Drying in the atmosphere or in hot air produce different print tones (hot
drying much warmer).
The printing range of a photo paper is defined as the ratio of the exposure
times necessary to produce a defined maximum and minimum blackness. Normally
this ratio is not given arithmetically, e.g. 4:1, 10:1 or 32:1, but logarithmically,
that is for the examples given 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5. These figures simultaneously
correspond to the maximum difference in density of a suitable negative.
The printing range is therefore the greatest permissible ex posure interval
in which you can still identify details, both in the shadows and highlights.
It provides information on the nega-five contrast - that is the maximum
difference in density - that can be rendered on a photo paper, making use
of the complete grey scale from white to black.
Paper with flat contrast has a wide printing range. It can render the
great variations in density of a contrasty (hard) negative. Paper with
steep contrast has a small printing range, and is therefore suitable for
low-contrast (soft) negatives with small variations in density.
To avoid decimal figures for the printing range, the logarithmic figures
to the ISO Standard 6846 are multiplied by 100 and suffixed with an "R"
(= range). The printing ranges in the examples given above are therefore
standardised at R 60, R 100 and R 150.
The printing range (ISO range) of MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC is shown in
the following table. When exposed to white light (without filters), MULTICONTRAST
CLASSIC has an ISO range of R 100.
Printing range of MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC
These figures are averages in used state. The
actual figures include a small production tolerance, and may vary from
the rated figures depending on ageing, storage and processing.
| ISO range
|| R 140
|| R 100
|| R 85
|| R 70
|| R 55
Toning processes convert the black image to a different colour. They
deposit coloured metal compounds on the silver grain. Toned photos keep
particularly well (archive proofing), because these silver complex compounds
are less liable to break down due to environmental pollution. Toning is
the best print silver stabilisation method.
Ïnly prints which are correctly exposed, developed as specified, fixed
in as fresh fixer as possible and well washed are suitable for toning.
In principle, any black and white papers can be toned. However, warm-toned
papers are most suitable.
There are two toning methods, direct and indirect. Direct toning converts
the silver image to a different silver compound in one operation. Indirect
toning involves bleaching first. A second solution creates a new
image, consisting of a silver compound with a different colour.
The simplest method is toning with AGFA VIRADON. It has the advantage
over other toning solutions that the contrast of the prints is unaffected.
In some cases the original print should be slightly overexposed (darker).
|VIRADON 1 + 50
(1 part VIRADON + 50 parts water)
| 1 - 10 min
on intensity needed)
| Stop bath* (10 % sodium sulphite solution)
* only necessary to prevent post-toning
in the wash.
| 1 min
|Final wash (see the following table)
If the only consideration is a long archive life (image silver stability),
the direct toning method should be used, since this changes the print tone
less (towards reddish-brown). Indirect toning produces much warmer print
|Bleaching (in 44 BL bleach* 1 + 3)
(1 part 44 BL concentrate + 3 parts water)
* Process AP 44 (bleach for colour reversal film processing)
| 2 - 5 min
| or Bleach (AGFA 501 formula)
500 ml 10 % potassium hexacyano-ferrate solution
100 ml 10 % potassium bromide solution
400 ml water
| 5 min
|| 5 min
|VIRADON 1 + 50
(possibly stop bath as for direct toning)
| 3 min
|Final wash (see the following table)
|Process temperature 20 C
Print silver stabilizer
AGFA SISTAN protects prints from changes of the image silver
caused by environmental pollution. This first becomes apparent as reddish
to yellowish-brown discolouration of the highlights, and may eventually
destroy the complete print, due to the image silver being changed into
colloidal silver. The sources of pollution are mainly industrial and car
fumes, fumes from heating oil, ozone, synthetic paints, compressed boarding,
non-acid-free cardboard, glues and adhesive tapes, freshly cut PVC, brittle
rubber and all substances giving off peroxide.
The properly processed prints are placed after the final wash for one
minute in a solution of 25 ml SISTAN + 975 ml water, and then dried. Up
to 2 m2 of paper can be treated in 1 litre of SISTAN solution.
For further information on print silver stabilisation see "Toning".
Since AGFA MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC is an orthochro matically sensitized
black-and-white photo paper (sensitive to blue and green light), special
care must be taken in chasing the right darkroom safelights. The following
filter screens or lights can be recommended as direct lighting for the
Other lights can also be used, but a test should always be made before
use as a precaution. Since the contrast is affected before any fogging
occurs (a shift to "soft"), the test should be carried out as follows:
Light with AGFA / METEOR darkroom filter "G 7" and 15 watt
tungsten lamp, minimum distance 1 m, max. period of action 3 minutes.
Light with KODAK filter "0C" and 15 watt tungsten
lamp, minimum distance 1 m, max. period of action 4 minutes.
Light with ILFORD filter "902" and 15 watt tungsten lamp, minimum distance
1.2 m, max. period of action 2 minutes.
OSRAM "Duke 50" with red filter, minimum distance 1 m, max.
period of action 4 minutes.
KINDERMANN "Dukalux Electronic", minimum distance 1 m, max.
period of action 4 minutes.
ILFORD SL 1 lamp, minimum distance 1.2 m, max. period of action 2 minutes.
Processing of MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC
Two prints are exposed with the same exposure time of a negative with medium
contrast or of a stepped grey wedge. One print is processed immediately,
and the second after it has been exposed to the safelight for the recommended
time. If both prints have the same contrast, the safelight is suitable.
If the second print if softer, this must be remedied by dimming
the light, increasing the distance from the working area, indirect lighting,
shortening the period of action, or using a different filter.
MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC is processed in exactly the same way as other
photo papers on a baryta base, e.g. AGFA RECORD-RAPID.
Processing in trays
* See : Soda intermediate bath
Standard dilution 1 + 4
Economy dilution 1 + 6
| 90+- 10 s
110+- 10 s
| 70+- 10 s
90+- 10 s
NEUTOL LIQUID NE, WA
Standard dilution 1 + 7
Economy dilution 1 + 11
| 90+- 10 s
120+- 10 s
| 60+- 10 s
90+- 10 s
||NEUTOL NE, WA, BL
|| 90+- 10 s
|| 60+- 10 s
|| 2 % acetic acid
|Soda intermediate bath *
||MULTICONTRAST FIXER 1 + 4
MULTICONTRAST FIXER 1 + 7
|60+- 20 s
120+- 30 s
||running water, over 12 C
running water, under 12 C
| 20 - 30 min
30 - 40 min
Choose exposure times which produce prints with optimum density in the
given developing time. Slightly longer developing times (up to a maximum
of 3 minutes) are not as a rule critical. The specified fixing times should
if possible not be exceeded.
The ADAPTOL, AGETOL LIOUID and METINOL developers and the ACIDOFIX
and AGEFIX fixers can also be used, bearing in mind their special features.
Other standard black-and-white paper developers and fixers are also suitable.
(For further details refer to the Technical Data P-56-C.)
A 2 % acetic acid stop bath is recommended for MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC
and is mixed as follows:
Instead of acetic acid a 4 % sodium disulphite stop bath may also be used.
1 part acetic acid (98 %) + 50 parts water or
1 part acetic acid (60 %) + 30 parts water or
1 part acetic acid (30 %) + 15 parts water
The stop bath stops development. This prevents post-develop ment and
the formation of yellow fog. It also neutralises the alkaline parts of
the developer in the photographic layer, and so prolongs the fixer's life.
It is imperative to include a stop bath when hardener-fixer is used.
The fixers recommended are:
The fixing times listed in the tables depend on the paper type used (emulsion,
silver coating), temperature agitation and condition of the fixer solution
in use. The shorter fixing times apply to fresh fixers, the longer times
to used solutions without replenishment. Excessively long fixing produces
bleached highlights and prolongs the final washing time of fibre-base papers.
MULTICONTRAST FIXER (liquid fixer concentrate)
AGEFIX (fixer concentrate)
ACIDOFIX (acid fixer salt, in powder form).
Properfixing ensures that the prints are durable. Consequently fixer
solution in use should be regularly checked for com position, since rises
in silver content, dilution, and variations in acidity (pH) impair the
Soda intermediate bath
A soda bath (1 % sodium carbonate solution) should be included for fibre-base
paper, between fixer and final wash (time: 3 minutes). This ensures that
the fixer is washed off the paper surface faster and more thoroughly. This
not only cuts down the final washing time by about 30 %, and in particular
it increases the prints' durability.
If a hardener-fixer is used, the soda intermediate bath is not recommended.
Thorough final washing determines the life of prints. Depending on
the temperature, agitation, wash water in- and output, the following washing
times are necessary:
without soda intermediate bath 20 - 40 minutes,
with soda intermediate bath 15 - 30 minutes.
MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC 1 and 111 are suitable for high gloss drying in
drums and glazing presses due to their hardened coating. Drying in heated
drying presses with the emulsion side facing the cloth is possible, to
prevent a high-gloss surface. Auch MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC 118 kann auf diese
Weise getrocknet warden. If you use this drying method
Drying in the atmosphere lends MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC 1 and
111 a silky natural gloss. Depending on the age of the paper and variations
in the processing and drying conditions, there may be slight variations
the drying press temperature should not exceed 70 C,
the drying cloth must not be too tightly stretched,
the drying cloth must be permeable to water vapour, i.e. not clogged with
gelatine residues. (If the cloth is very dirty, it should be cleaned with
an enzyme, e.g. Biolase from Hoechst AG, Frankfurt, or Papain from
Ernst Merck Co., Darmstadt).
Fibre-base papers can be written on, stamped and retouched without problems.
MULTICONTRAST CLASSIC is highly suitable for all retouching methods (e.g.
spotting, scraping and spraying) and mounting methods.
|Bicoll G 6
|| Bretschneider, D-57684 Unnau
|| Branding, D-31275 Lehrte
|Planatol AD 94/5 B
|| Planatol-Werke, D-83022 Rosenheim
| Cold adhesive foils
|| Neschen, D-31675 Buckeburg
|| Lohmann GmbH, D-56567 Neuwied
|| Morgan Adhesives, D-50735 Koln
|| Korn-Sallmetall, D-42766 Haan
|| Hilsdorf, D-55411 Bingen
|Hot adhesive foils
|Hot adhesive tissue 204
|| Hilsdorf, D-55411 Bingen
|Ademco D 5
|| Dry-Mounting GmbH, D-59929 Brilon
|| Seal, D-71638 Kornwestheim