Black and White Paper Guide



A polyethylene layer is applied on both sides of the paper support, and over the polyethylene layer photographic emulsion is coated. This polyethylene layer prevents absorption of water and processing chemicals into the support so the processing takes place only in the emulsion layer. This way the time required for making photographs is considerably reduced; as well as the consumption of processing baths and rinsing water. PE photographic papers are more resistant, stronger, and their dimensional stability is higher than with the conventional photographic papers. For this reason they have a wide range qf application possibilitiss. Photographs made on PE photogaphic papers do not curl, and high gloss of their surface is obtained by letting them dry freely in the air. 

When handling BROMAL and BROMAL PE photographic papers, for the illumination of the darkroom we recommend the use of folloving safelight filters: 
- yellow-green ZZ-1 5 for indirect illumination 
- yellow-green Z-35 or brown S-34 for direct illumination. 
When handling EMAKS and EMAKS PE, EFKEBROM and EFKEBROM PE, we recommend the use of following safelight filters: 
- orange N-1 5, yellow-green Z-1 5 or red C-1 5 for indirect illumination 
- orange N-35, yellow-green Z-35 or red C-35 for direct illumination. With all FOTOKEMIKA safelight filters we recommend the use of 15 W up to max. 25 W bulbs. The normal distance between the housing with the filter and photographic materials is 80 cm. 

For developing black-and-white FOTOKEMIKA photographic papers we recommend the use of efke FR-4 developer or efke FR-16 universal developer. The developing time for BROMAL and BROMAL PE photographic papers is 2 mins, and for EMAKS and EMAKS PE 1.5-2 mins. The temperature of the developer should always be adjusted to 293 K (20C). 
Developed photographs are immersed into a stop bath (2% acetic acid) for about 1 5 s or washed in running vrater for 30 s. 
For fixing we recommend the use of efke FF-1 acid fixer (for about 1 5 mins) or efke FF-2 rapid fixer (for about 8 mins) at the temperature of 293 K (20C). 
Fixed photographs should be washed in running water. 
Washing time for photographs made on resin coated support is 5-10 mins and photographs made on baryta coated support should be washed for about 30 mins. 
Photographs made on PE support should be dried freely in the air or inside driers by flow of warm air at the temperature up to 333 K (60C). Photographs made on P or K support should be adequately dried in units for heat-drying. 
BROMAL PE photographic paper has been also designed for machine process at higher temperature - up to 303 K (30C). 

Photographic paper should be stored in rooms protected from heat humidity and harmful vapors. We recommend the following storage conditions: temperature 277-293 K (4-20C1, relative humidity 50 606. 
Opened packages should be kept in dry rooms. 


Artzone Index We express our gratitude to K. Theocharis Bros. , distributor of EFKE products in Greece for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 

Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved. 
First published date 15 July 1998 


Paperzone Index
* K. Theocharis Bros.  
25 Lekka str. Athens 10562, Greece,  
Tel: +301 3236393  Fax: +301 3247593