Black and White Paper Guide
 
 


PROCESSING AND FINISHING ILFORD 
RESIN COATED PAPERS 

ILFORD resin coated papers are processed in a similar way to other resin coated papers. All ILFORD resin coated papers can be dish or machine processed. 

DISH PROCESSING 

Agitation 
Use intermittent agitation when dish processing prints, that is, intermittently rock the dish when processing single sheets, or interleave them when processing several sheets of paper at once. 
To interleave prints, slip the sheets face down, one at a time, into the dish. Then pull out the bottom sheet and place it on top of the remaining sheets in the dish. Continue moving the bottom sheet to the top, until the processing step is complete. 
Nofe Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD. 

Development 
  
ILFORD 
developer
Dilution 
 
Temperature 
(C)
Time 
(min)
MULTIGRADE 
MULTIGRADE 
ILFOSPEED 
PQ UNIVERSAL 
BROMOPHEN
1+9 
1+14 
1+9 
1+9 
stock
20 
20 
20 
20 
20
1 
11/2 
1 
11/2-3 
11/2-3
MULTIGRADE developer is recommended for dish processing MULTIGRADE papers. ILFOSPEED developer is recommended for dish processing ILFOSPEED RC DE LUXE paper. 
To maintain print to print consistency when batch processing a large number of prints, it may be advantageous to reduce exposure slightly and extend development. 

MULTIGRADE 1+9 and ILFOSPEED 1+9 On correctly exposed prints, the image will begin to appear after 10-15 seconds with these developers. The minimum recommended development time for high quality prints is 45 seconds; after this time there is a more gradual image build-up. Overexposed prints developed for a minimum of 35 seconds are acceptable for those applications where the highest quality is not required. 

Developer capacity 
   
 The following table gives the developing capacity of one litre of working strength developer. 
ILFORD 
developer 
 
Dilution 
 
 
20,3x25,4cm 
(8x10 inches) 
ILFORD prints
Liquids
MULTIGRADE 
MULTIGRADE 
ILFOSPEED 
PQ UNIVERSAL
1+9 
1+14 
1+9 
1+9
100 
70 
100 
70
Powder
BROMOPHEN 1+3 70
  
MULTIGRADE and ILFOSPEED developers 
MULTIGRADE and ILFOSPEED developers are suitable for developing all black and white papers. MULTIGRADE developer can be used at the standard dilution of 1 +9 or at 1 +1 4 for greater development control and for economy. MULTIGRADE and ILFOSPEED developers are clean working and have excellent keeping properties. They can be stored as concentrates in full unopened bottles for up to 2 years; in half full bottles, they have a shelf life of 6 months. Diluted developer will stay in good condition in the open dish for two working days, at dilution 1+9, and for one working day, at dilution 1 +14. 
The darker colour of these developers, compared with some other liquid developers, is normal and does not indicate that the developer has deteriorated in any way. 

Stop bath 
After development, rinse prints in an acid stop bath, such as ILFORD IN-1 . A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining and will extend the life of the fixer bath. 
 
ILFORD 
stop bath 
Dilution 
 
Temperature 
(C)
Time 
(sec)
Liquid 
IN-1
1+39 18-24 5-10
A guide to the capacity of IN-1 solution is 145 20,3x25,4cm (8x10 inches) prints in 1 litre of working strength solution. Alternatively, discard the solution if the prints still feel slimy after 10 seconds in the bath. 
A water rinse can be used instead of a stop bath, but it must be changed frequently to avoid processing marks. 

Fixation 
 
ILFORD 
non-hardening fixer
Dilution 
 
Temperature 
(C)
Time 
(min)
Liquids
PAPER FIXER 
HYPAM 
HYPAM
1+3 
1+4 
1+9
18-24 
18-24 
18-24
1/2 
1/2 
1
Powder
IF-2 1+2 18-24 5
 The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency. There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. 

Fixer capacity 
The capacity of a fixer is limited by the build up of silver in the bath. A silver level of 4-6g/I is safe for all commercial use with resin coated papers. This approximates to 80 20,3x25,4cm (8x10 inches) prints per litre of working strength fixer. For prints with maximum stability, that is, for long term storage, a silver level of 1 g/) should be used. This approximates to 20 20,3x25,4cm (8x10 inches/ prints per litre of working strength fixer. 

Two-bath fixing 
Although not normally recommended with resin coated papers, two-bath fixing can be beneficial when toning for aesthetic effect or to protect the print for display. 

Two-bath fixing at 18-24C 
 
Dilution 
 
Fixing                     time            (min) 
 Bath 1                                      Bath 2
Liquids
PAPER FIXER 
HYPAM 
HYPAM
1+3 
1+4 
1+9
1/2 
1/2 
1
+ 
+ 
+
1/2 
1/2 
1
Powder
IF-2 1+2 3 + 3
Washing 
 
Temperature 
(C)
Time 
(sec)
Fresh, running water Above 5 120
  When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash ILFORD resin coated papers for 30 seconds in running water. 
Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer than 15 minutes. 
  
 Drying 

A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying. Optimum quality results will be obtained with the ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB 1 250RC. ILFORD dryers will give the best possible finish on all ILFORD paper surfaces, and produce a high gloss finish on ILFORD glossy papers. When a dryer for resin coated popers is not available, remove surplus water from the prints and leave them to dry. At room temperature, prints will dry in 10-20 minutes. 
Note: ILFORD resin coated paper, as with other resin coated papers, should not be glazed or dried on a drum or flatbed glazer, as this can cause the polyethylene in the paper to stick to the glazing surface. 

MACNINE PROCESSING 

ILFORD resin coated papers can be processed in all conventional machines for black and white resin coated papers. For activation type processing, only the MULTIGRADE III RC RAPID paper is recommended. 

ILFORD processors 
The ILFORD 2240RC processor is particularly recommended for high quality, rapid machine processing. ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with this processor. They are supplied as liquid concentrates and are diluted 1 +4 with water to make tank or replenisher solution. A developer starter is not needed. Recommended replenishment rates are 150m1 developer replenisher and 250m1 fixer replenisher for every square metre of paper processed. 
For the convenience of automatic processing without the need to use large, floor standing equipment, the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor is recommended. ILFORD 2000TL developer and fixer are recommended for use with this processor. They are supplied as 4 litre packs of liquid concentrate, which are simply poured into the processor and mixed to the correct dilution automatically by the processor. 

0ther processors 
This section is a guide to setting up processors for ILFORD resin coated papers using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher. These are diluted 1 +4 to make tank or replenisher solution. These suggestions are only a guide, and the processing cycle should be checked in the processor. For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor. 

Suggested development times 
The preferred temperature range is 20-30C. 
 
Temperature 
(C)
Development time (sec) 
 including transfer time to next tank
20 
25 
30 
35 
40
46 
32 
22 
15 
12
These times are for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life of seven days. They are also for replenished systems with a solution life of up to three months. The suggested developer replenishment rate is 150-200m1/m2 paper processed. 
The solution life is dependent on paper throughput, and a suggested minimum is 2,8m2 of paper per litre of working strength solution per week. If paper throughput is considerably less than this, to maintain print quality, it may be necessary either 
to make up fresh tank solution every 6 weeks instead of 1 2 weeks, or to double the replenishment rates. 

Suggested fixing times 
The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is ample above 20C. These recommendations are suitable for both replenished and non-replenished systems. In non-replenished systems, the maximum paper throughput is 4m2 per litre of working strength solution. The suggested fixer replenishment rate for replenished systems is 300-450m1/m2 of paper processed. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath is 4-6g/l. 
Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible. 

Washing times 
Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5C. Set the water flow so as to fill the wash tank in 4 minutes or less. 

Hot air drying  
Use temperatures up to 85C. 

TONING AND CHEMICAL REDUCTlON 
ILFORD papers respond in a similar way to other resin coated papers to the usual techniques of toning and chemical reduction. 

RETOUCHING 
ILFORD prints can be spotted and air brushed using dye (for a glossy finish) or water colour (for a matt f nish), in the same way as other resin coated papers. 
When knifing resin coated prints, damp the area to be knifed, then use a sharp, pointed blade to scrape away the emulsion. Alternatively, bleach out specks completely using local chemical reduction. Affer knifing or local reduction, rewash and dry the print, then spot the resulting white area in the usual way. 

BACKWRITING 
The back of ILFORD resin coated papers is treated to accept pencil, most ball pens, non-water soluble felt-tipped pens, fast drying stamp pad inks and all printing inks formulated for polyethylene printing. Many users also photocopy information onto the back of prints, although, strictly, this is not recommended. 
Conventional stamp pad inks dry mainly because of the absorption by the paper base. Resin coated paper cannot absorb ink, and only inks that rely on rapid solvent evaporation are suitable. Such inks dry very rapidly so it is important to keep the pad shut when not in use. During use, the solvent in the ink will evaporate and the pad will become dry. If only ink is added, clogging will occur. To prevent this, a little recommended solvent should be used on the pad. 
To obtain satisFactory results with these inks: 

  • 1 Do not over ink the pad
  • 2 Ink off the first impression on a sheet of blotting paper before starting to backstamp. It should be possible to obtain five or six impressions from one inking.
MOUNTING 
ILFORD prints can be mounted in one of the following ways. Where prints are to be mounted for long periods /in excess of 1-2 years), the dry mounting method is recommended. 

Dry mounting 
ILFORD prints can be dry mounted in the usual way. The use of a foil overlay is recommended for glossy surfaces and the use of silicone release paper for other surfaces. 
Although the manufacturers' recommendations should be followed, most tissues will give good results in a dry mounting press at a temperature of 80-90C with prints under pressure for about 30-40 seconds. 

Double-sided adbesive sbeets/iold mounting films 
These provide a very effective and convenient means of mounting ILFORD papers onto porous or non-porous surfaces, without the need for special machinery. Some adhesive sheets allow the print to be repositioned affer fixing. Several makes are available in sheet or roll form. 

Spray adhesives 
Spray adhesives are suitable for mounting ILFORD papers. 
Note Always read the safety advice given by the manufacturers before using spray adhesives. 

Contact adhesives 
These adhesives are available in liquid form for brushing or spraying and are suitable for mounting ILFORD papers onto porous or non-porous mounts. Solvents must be allowed to evaporate completely from both print and mount before the two are brought into contact. 

Wet mounting 
ILFORD papers can be mounted onto porous surfaces /eg hardboard) using wet adhesives such as those designed for wall coverings. When mounting large prints, this method is an advantage, as there is time to position the print correctly and remove any air bubbles that might have become trapped between the print and the mount, without damaging the print. Wet mounting resin coated paper on non-porous materials (eg metal) is not recommended. 

DISPLAY 0F PRINTS 
Prints made for display must be toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. These gases come from everyday items such as newly laid carpet, wet gloss paint, newly applied adhesives and traffic fumes. Selenium toner is recommended as it has little effect on the image colour. Sulphide (or sepia) toning also gives an image of increased stability, as do polysulphide toners /for example, Kodak Brown Toner). 
Also recommended for image protection are image stabilising solutions, such as Agfa Sistan, Tetenal Stabinal and Fuji AgGuard. 
Some metal replacement toners, for example, gold toner and platinum toner can protect the image, but other metal replacement toners, such as blue (iron) toner and red (copper) toner may not give extra protection as the image might fade. Dye toners do not give extra protection. 
Laminating may also help, but ideally prints should be toned before laminating.



 

 
Artzone Index We express our gratitude to *  D & J Damkalidis S.A , distributor of ILFORD products in Greece for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 


Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved. 
First published date 15 July 1998 

 

Paperzone Index
 
* D & J Damkalidis S.A.  
44 Zefyrou str. Athens , Greece,  
Tel: +301 9410888  Fax: +301 9427058