PROCESSING AND FINISHING ILFORD
RESIN COATED PAPERS
ILFORD resin coated papers are processed in a similar way to other resin
coated papers. All ILFORD resin coated papers can be dish or machine processed.
Use intermittent agitation when dish processing prints, that is, intermittently
rock the dish when processing single sheets, or interleave them when processing
several sheets of paper at once.
To interleave prints, slip the sheets face down, one at a time, into
the dish. Then pull out the bottom sheet and place it on top of the remaining
sheets in the dish. Continue moving the bottom sheet to the top, until
the processing step is complete.
Nofe Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly.
Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals
material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling,
disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD.
MULTIGRADE developer is recommended for dish processing MULTIGRADE papers.
ILFOSPEED developer is recommended for dish processing ILFOSPEED RC DE
To maintain print to print consistency when batch processing a large
number of prints, it may be advantageous to reduce exposure slightly and
MULTIGRADE 1+9 and ILFOSPEED 1+9 On correctly exposed prints,
the image will begin to appear after 10-15 seconds with these developers.
The minimum recommended development time for high quality prints is 45
seconds; after this time there is a more gradual image build-up. Overexposed
prints developed for a minimum of 35 seconds are acceptable for those applications
where the highest quality is not required.
The following table gives the developing
capacity of one litre of working strength developer.
MULTIGRADE and ILFOSPEED developers
MULTIGRADE and ILFOSPEED developers are suitable for developing all
black and white papers. MULTIGRADE developer can be used at the standard
dilution of 1 +9 or at 1 +1 4 for greater development control and
for economy. MULTIGRADE and ILFOSPEED developers are clean working and
have excellent keeping properties. They can be stored as concentrates in
full unopened bottles for up to 2 years; in half full bottles, they have
a shelf life of 6 months. Diluted developer will stay in good condition
in the open dish for two working days, at dilution 1+9, and for one working
day, at dilution 1 +14.
The darker colour of these developers, compared with some other liquid
developers, is normal and does not indicate that the developer has deteriorated
in any way.
After development, rinse prints in an acid stop bath, such as ILFORD
IN-1 . A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk
of staining and will extend the life of the fixer bath.
A guide to the capacity of IN-1 solution is 145 20,3x25,4cm (8x10
inches) prints in 1 litre of working strength solution. Alternatively,
discard the solution if the prints still feel slimy after 10 seconds in
A water rinse can be used instead of a stop bath, but it must
be changed frequently to avoid processing marks.
The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended
as it reduces washing efficiency. There is no benefit in extending fixation
beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when
long fixing times are given due to image etching.
The capacity of a fixer is limited by the build up of silver in the
bath. A silver level of 4-6g/I is safe for all commercial use with resin
coated papers. This approximates to 80 20,3x25,4cm (8x10 inches) prints
per litre of working strength fixer. For prints with maximum stability,
that is, for long term storage, a silver level of 1 g/) should be used.
This approximates to 20 20,3x25,4cm (8x10 inches/ prints per litre of working
Although not normally recommended with resin coated papers, two-bath
fixing can be beneficial when toning for aesthetic effect or to protect
the print for display.
Two-bath fixing at 18-24C
When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible
time, vigorously wash ILFORD resin coated papers for 30 seconds in running
|Fresh, running water
Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl
with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer than
A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will
aid even and rapid drying. Optimum quality results will be obtained with
the ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB 1 250RC. ILFORD dryers
will give the best possible finish on all ILFORD paper surfaces, and produce
a high gloss finish on ILFORD glossy papers. When a dryer for resin coated
popers is not available, remove surplus water from the prints and leave
them to dry. At room temperature, prints will dry in 10-20 minutes.
Note: ILFORD resin coated paper, as with other resin coated
papers, should not be glazed or dried on a drum or flatbed glazer, as this
can cause the polyethylene in the paper to stick to the glazing surface.
ILFORD resin coated papers can be processed in all conventional machines
for black and white resin coated papers. For activation type processing,
only the MULTIGRADE III RC RAPID paper is recommended.
The ILFORD 2240RC processor is particularly recommended for high quality,
rapid machine processing. ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher
are recommended for use with this processor. They are supplied as liquid
concentrates and are diluted 1 +4 with water to make tank or replenisher
solution. A developer starter is not needed. Recommended replenishment
rates are 150m1 developer replenisher and 250m1 fixer replenisher for every
square metre of paper processed.
For the convenience of automatic processing without the need to use
large, floor standing equipment, the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor
is recommended. ILFORD 2000TL developer and fixer are recommended for use
with this processor. They are supplied as 4 litre packs of liquid concentrate,
which are simply poured into the processor and mixed to the correct dilution
automatically by the processor.
This section is a guide to setting up processors for ILFORD resin coated
papers using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher.
These are diluted 1 +4 to make tank or replenisher solution. These suggestions
are only a guide, and the processing cycle should be checked in the processor.
For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor.
Suggested development times
The preferred temperature range is 20-30C.
These times are for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life
of seven days. They are also for replenished systems with a solution life
of up to three months. The suggested developer replenishment rate is 150-200m1/m2
|Development time (sec)
including transfer time to next tank
The solution life is dependent on paper throughput, and a suggested
minimum is 2,8m2 of paper per litre of working strength solution per week.
If paper throughput is considerably less than this, to maintain print quality,
it may be necessary either
to make up fresh tank solution every 6 weeks instead of 1 2 weeks,
or to double the replenishment rates.
Suggested fixing times
The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for
fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is
ample above 20C. These recommendations are suitable for both replenished
and non-replenished systems. In non-replenished systems, the maximum paper
throughput is 4m2 per litre of working strength solution. The suggested
fixer replenishment rate for replenished systems is 300-450m1/m2 of paper
processed. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath is 4-6g/l.
Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible.
Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5C. Set the water
flow so as to fill the wash tank in 4 minutes or less.
Hot air drying
Use temperatures up to 85C.
TONING AND CHEMICAL REDUCTlON
ILFORD papers respond in a similar way to other resin coated papers
to the usual techniques of toning and chemical reduction.
ILFORD prints can be spotted and air brushed using dye (for a glossy
finish) or water colour (for a matt f nish), in the same way as other resin
When knifing resin coated prints, damp the area to be knifed, then
use a sharp, pointed blade to scrape away the emulsion. Alternatively,
bleach out specks completely using local chemical reduction. Affer knifing
or local reduction, rewash and dry the print, then spot the resulting white
area in the usual way.
The back of ILFORD resin coated papers is treated to accept pencil,
most ball pens, non-water soluble felt-tipped pens, fast drying stamp pad
inks and all printing inks formulated for polyethylene printing. Many users
also photocopy information onto the back of prints, although, strictly,
this is not recommended.
Conventional stamp pad inks dry mainly because of the absorption by
the paper base. Resin coated paper cannot absorb ink, and only inks that
rely on rapid solvent evaporation are suitable. Such inks dry very rapidly
so it is important to keep the pad shut when not in use. During use, the
solvent in the ink will evaporate and the pad will become dry. If only
ink is added, clogging will occur. To prevent this, a little recommended
solvent should be used on the pad.
To obtain satisFactory results with these inks:
1 Do not over ink the pad
2 Ink off the first impression on a sheet of blotting paper before starting
to backstamp. It should be possible to obtain five or six impressions from
ILFORD prints can be mounted in one of the following ways. Where prints
are to be mounted for long periods /in excess of 1-2 years), the dry mounting
method is recommended.
ILFORD prints can be dry mounted in the usual way. The use of a foil
overlay is recommended for glossy surfaces and the use of silicone release
paper for other surfaces.
Although the manufacturers' recommendations should be followed, most
tissues will give good results in a dry mounting press at a temperature
of 80-90C with prints under pressure for about 30-40 seconds.
Double-sided adbesive sbeets/iold mounting films
These provide a very effective and convenient means of mounting ILFORD
papers onto porous or non-porous surfaces, without the need for special
machinery. Some adhesive sheets allow the print to be repositioned affer
fixing. Several makes are available in sheet or roll form.
Spray adhesives are suitable for mounting ILFORD papers.
Note Always read the safety advice given by the manufacturers
before using spray adhesives.
These adhesives are available in liquid form for brushing or spraying
and are suitable for mounting ILFORD papers onto porous or non-porous mounts.
Solvents must be allowed to evaporate completely from both print and mount
before the two are brought into contact.
ILFORD papers can be mounted onto porous surfaces /eg hardboard) using
wet adhesives such as those designed for wall coverings. When mounting
large prints, this method is an advantage, as there is time to position
the print correctly and remove any air bubbles that might have become trapped
between the print and the mount, without damaging the print. Wet mounting
resin coated paper on non-porous materials (eg metal) is not recommended.
DISPLAY 0F PRINTS
Prints made for display must be toned to protect them from the oxidising
gases that are found in many environments. These gases come from everyday
items such as newly laid carpet, wet gloss paint, newly applied adhesives
and traffic fumes. Selenium toner is recommended as it has little effect
on the image colour. Sulphide (or sepia) toning also gives an image of
increased stability, as do polysulphide toners /for example, Kodak Brown
Also recommended for image protection are image stabilising solutions,
such as Agfa Sistan, Tetenal Stabinal and Fuji AgGuard.
Some metal replacement toners, for example, gold toner and platinum
toner can protect the image, but other metal replacement toners, such as
blue (iron) toner and red (copper) toner may not give extra protection
as the image might fade. Dye toners do not give extra protection.
Laminating may also help, but ideally prints should be toned before