Black and White Paper Guide
 
   
 
 

MULTIGRADE IV FB FIBER 
PREMIUM QUALITY VARIABLE CONTRAST PAPER ON A FIBRE BASE 

ILFORD MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is a premium quality variable contrast paper on a fibre base. Compared with MULTIGRADE FB, it has been improved to give better tonal rendition throughout the contrast range, especially in the highlights. It also has a slightly heavier weight base at 255g/m2. MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is part of the ILFORD MULTIGRADE system and is fully compatible with all existing MULTIGRADE filters and equipment. It is equally suitable for printing from conventional . negatives and from XP2 negatives. 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is available in'double weight (1 K) glossy surface and (5K) matt surface. 

EXPOSURE 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is designed for use with all enlargers. 

Safelight recommendations 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber can be used with most common safelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended, however, as they generally allow dorkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber and many black and white papers. ILFORD safelights are the ILFORD SL1 darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in o darkroom lamp (for example, the ILFORD DLlO or DL2O). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights. 
For direct lighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance between the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1 metre. 
Other safelight filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa-Gevaert G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp. 

Spectral sensitivity 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber was tested unfiltered to produce the following curves at density 0.5, 1 .0 and 1 .5. 
 

Contrast range 
Seven full grades of contrast, in half grade steps, are available on MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper when used with the ILFORD MULTIGRADE speed-matched filters. 
The chart gives the ISO range figures (ISO standard 6846 - 1 983) for MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber. These figures give a guide to selecting the appropriate grade of paper for a given effective negative density range. 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber unfiltered has an ISO range of R100. 

IS0 range 
 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper and 
MULTIGRADE filters
Filter 
Range (R)
00 
170
0 
150
1 
130
2 
100
3 
80
4 
60
5 
40
The above values are representative of those obtained when dish processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. 
ISO range figures may be helpful to printers who have some means of measuring the effective density range of the image as projected on the enlarger baseboard - such as with a photometer. 
As an example, for a negative with an effective density range of 1 .32 log exposure units, multiply this figure by 100 and choose the nearest ISO range figure from the table - in this case 1 30. Try printing this negative with MULTIGRADE filter 1 on MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper. 

IS0 speed 
The speed of MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber depends on the filtration used during exposure. MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber unfiltered, has a paper speed of ISO P500. 

IS0 paper speed 
  
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper and 
MULTIGRADE filters
Filter 
Speed (P)
00 
200
0 
--------------
1 
--------------
2 
--------------
3 
200
4 
100
5 
100
The above values are representative of those obtained when dish processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. 

Exposing light sources      
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is designed for use with most enlargers and printers, that is, those fitted with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. It is also suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers - further details are given in the fact sheet 'Contrast control'. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range. 

Contrast control 
Contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, MULTIGRADE 500 equipment, other variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads. Full details on contrast control with MULTIGRADE papers are given in the fact sheet 'Contrast control'. 
The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00-5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00-31/2 is the same; that for filters 4-5 is double. 
The very sophisticated ILFORD MULTIGRADE 500 exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on most professional enlargers. 
 

Characteristic curves 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber glossy paper exposed through filters 00, 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: MULTIGRADE diluted 1+9. Development: 2 minutes at 20C 

PROCESSING 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber is processed in the same way as other fibre base papers. Full details on processing fibre base papers are given in the fact sheet 'Processing B&W paper - FB papers'. 
Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and tronsportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD. 

Processing summary (intermittent agitation) 
 
ILFORD 
chemical
Dilution 
 
C 
 
Time 
(min)
Development 
MULTIGRADE developer 
or 
MULTIGRADE developer 
1+9 

1+14

20 

20

1 1/2-3 

2-5

Stop bath 
IN-1
1+39 18-24 5-lOsec
Fixation 
ILFORD PAPER FIXER
1+3 18-24 1
Washing 
Fresh, running water
 - Above 5 60
 
Development 
See the'Processing summary' for development recommendations. 
On correctly exposed prints with MULTIGRADE developer 1+9, the image will begin to appear affer 35 seconds. Development can be extended up to 6 minutes without any noticeable change in contrast or fog. 
To give greater control during development, and for economy, the 1 +14 dilution of MULTIGRADE developer can be used. 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper can also be processed in other high quality dish developers such as ILFORD PQ UNIVERSAL. 

Stop Bath 
See the 'Processing summary' for stop bath recommendations. 
A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining and will extend the life of the fixer bath. 
A water rinse can be used instead of a stop bath, but it must be changed frequently to avoid processing marks. 

Fixation 
See the 'Processing summary' for fixing recommendations. 
The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency. ILFORD PAPER FIXER is a non-hardening fixer. 
There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. 

Washing 
See the 'Processing summary' for washing recommendations. 

Drying 
A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying. After washing, squeegee prints on both sides to remove surplus water. Prints can then be air-dried at room temperature or heat-dried. 

OPTIMUM PERMANENCE 
The standard fixing and washing recommendations will give excellent print permanence for all commercial needs. When optimum permanence is needed, perhaps for archival storage of prints, the following fixing and washing sequences at 1 8-24C (including wash water) are recommended usin ILFORD GALERIE WASHAID. Do not add a har ener to the fixer. Be careful not to exceed the capacity of the fixer and not to extend the f'ixing time as both these make washing more difficult. 

0ptimum permanence sequence 
Fixation 
 
ILFORD PAPER FIXER 
intermittent agitation
[1+3) 
 
lmin 
 
First wash Fresh, running water 5min
Washing aid 
 
GALERIE WASHAID 
intermittent agitation
(1+4) 
 
lOmin 
 
Final wash Fresh, running water 5min
Optimum permanence sepuence with selenium toner 
  
Fixing 
 
ILFORD PAPER FIXER 
intermittent agitation,
(1+3) 
 
1 min 
 
Toning 
 
 
 
Selenium toner diluted with 
working strength GALERIE 
WASHAID instead of water, 
intermittent agitation
* min 
 
 
 
Rinse 
 
GALERIE WASHAID 
intermittent agitotion
(1+4), 
 
10 min 
 
Final wash Fresh, running water  30 min
* Tone the print for the appropriate time to achieve the depth of colour needed 

FINISHING 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber responds in the same way as other fibre base papers to the usual techniques of toning, chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for fibre base papers. Furfher detoils on finishing fibre base papers are given in the fact sheet'Processing B&W paper- FB papers'. 

STORAGE 
Unprocessed paper 
Store unused MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber will keep in excellent condition for up to 2 years when stored as recommended. 

Prints 
MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. Print life will be shorfened, however, in adverse storage conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. 
It is recommended that prints made for display are toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. Selenium toner is recommended as it has little effect on the image colour of MULTIGRADE IV FB Fiber, but other protection methods can be used including sulphide toning, silver image stabilisers and laminating. Full details on protecting prints made for disploy are given in the fact sheet'Processing B&W paper FB papers' 
 
 



 

 
Artzone Index We express our gratitude to *  D & J Damkalidis S.A , distributor of ILFORD products in Greece for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 


Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved. 
First published date 15 July 1998 

 

Paperzone Index
 
* D & J Damkalidis S.A.  
44 Zefyrou str. Athens , Greece,  
Tel: +301 9410888  Fax: +301 9427058