Black and White Paper Guide



ILFORD MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe is a premium quality variable contrast paper on a resin coated base. Compared with MULTIGRADE III, it has been improved to give better tonal rendition throughout the contrast range, especially in the highlights. MULTIGRADE IV RC Deluxe has a bright base tint. The image colour remains cool-to-neutral whether viewed in daylight or fluorescent light. MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe is part of the ILFORD MULTIGRADE system and is fully compatible with all existing MULTIGRADE filters and equipment. It is equally suitable for printing from conventional negatives and from XP2 negatives. 
There are three MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe surfaces: 1 M glossy, 25M satin and 44M pearl. 

MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe is designed for use with all enlargers. 

Safelight recommendations 
MULTIGRADE IV RC Deluxe can be used with most common safelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended, however, as they generally allow darkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe and many black and white papers. ILFORD safelights are the ILFORD SLl darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in a darkroom lamp (for example, the ILFORD DL10 or DL20). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights. 
For direct (ighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance between the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1 metre. 
Other filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa-Gevaert G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp. 

Spectral sensitivity 
MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe was tested unfiltered to produce the following curves at density 0.5, 1 .0 and 1 .5. 


Contrast range 
Seven full grades of contrast, in half grade steps, , are available on MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper when used with the ILFORD MULTIGRADE speed-matched filters. 
The chart gives the ISO range figures (ISO standard 6846 - 1 983) for MULTIGRADE IV 
RC Deluxe. These figures give a guide to selecting the appropriate grade of paper for a given effective negative density range. 
MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe unfiltered has an ISO range of R 110. 

IS0 range 
MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper and 
The above values are representative of those obtained when dish or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. ISO range figures may be helpful to printers who have some means of measuring the effective density range of the image as projected on the 
enlarger baseboard - such as with a photometer. As an example, for a negative with an effective density range of 1 .32 log exposure units, multiply this figure by 1 00 and choose the nearest ISO range figure from the table - in this case 1 30. Try printing this negative with MULTIGRADE filter 1 on MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper. 

IS0 speed 
The speed of MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe depends on the filtration used during exposure. MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe unfiltered, has a paper speed of ISO P500. 

IS0 paper speed 
MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper and 
The above values are representative of those obtained when dish or machine processing the paper to ILFORD recommendations. 

Exposing light sources 
MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe is designed for use with most enlargers and printers, that is, those fitted with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. It is also suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for variable contrast papers - further details are given in the fact sheet 'Contrast control'. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range. 

Latent image stability 
No significant change in picture quality will be seen when MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe is lefr for a period of 24 hours afrer exposure and before processing. 

Contrast control 
Contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, MULTIGRADE 1 00 or 500 equipment, other variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads. Full details on contrast control with MULTIGRADE papers are given in the fact sheet 'Contrast control'. 
The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00-5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00-31/2 is the same; that for filters 4-5 is double. 
ILFORD MULTIGRADE 100 is a replacement enlarger head. The very sophisticated ILFORD MULTIGRADE 500 exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on most professional enlargers. 
Compared with MULTIGRADE III, MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe has a different balance of sensitivity to blue and green light. For this reason, it might be necessary to rebalance the lamps on the MULTIGRADE 500 equipment. Refer to the 'Program selector switch' section in the operating manual. For shortest exposures, put the brighter lamp(s) for the blue (or magenta) light. 

Characteristic curves
  MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe glossy or pearl paper exposed through filters 00, 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: MULTIGRADE diluted 1 +9. Development: 1 minute at 20C. 

MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe is processed in the same way as other resin coated papers. Full details on processing resin coated papers are given in the fact sheet'Processing B&W paper RC papers'. 

Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packaging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposa) and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD. 

Processing summary (intermittent agitation) 
MULTIGRADE developer 
1+9 20 60
MULTIGRADE developer 
Stop bath 
1+39 18-24 5 -10
1 +3 18-24 30
Fresh, running water
Above 5 120
Development See the 'Processing summary' for development recommendations. 
On correctly exposed prints with MULTIGRADE developer 1 +9, the image will begin to appear after 10 seconds. The minimum recommended development time for high quality prints is 45 seconds; after this time there is a more gradual image build-up. Overexposed prints developed for a minimum of 35 seconds are acceptable for those applications where the highest quality is not required. 
To give greater control during development, and for economy, the 1 +1 4 dilution of MULTIGRADE developer can be used. 
MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper can also be processed in other high quality dish developers such as ILFORD ILFOSPEED and ILFORD PQ UNIVERSAL. 

Stop bath 
See the 'Processing summary' for stop bath recommendations. 
A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining and will extend the life of the fixer bath. 
A water rinse can be used instead of a stop bath, but it must be changed frequently to avoid processing marks. 

See the 'Processing summary' for fixing recommendations. 
The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency. ILFORD PAPER FIXER is a non-hardening fixer. 
There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. 

See the 'Processing summary' for washing recommendations. 
When it is important to obtain a print in the shortest possible time, vigorously wash MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper for 30 seconds in running water. 
Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge penetration and print curl with resin coated papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer than 15 minutes. 

A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1+200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying. Optimum quality results will be obtained with the ILFORD series of dryers, for example, the ILFOLAB 1250RC. 
When a dryer for resin coated papers is not available, remove surplus water from the prints and leave them to dry. At room temperature, prints will dry in 10-20 minutes. 
Note MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper, as with other resin coated papers, should not be glazed or dried on a drum or flatbed glazer, as this can cause the polyethylene in the paper to stick to the glazing surface. 

MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper can be processed in all conventional machines for black and white resin coated papers. It is not suitable, however, for activation type processing. Full details on processing resin coated papers are given in the fact sheet'Processing B&W paper RC papers'. 

ILFORD processors 
The ILFOLAB MG 2950 processor is particularly recommended for high quality, rapid machine processing. ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher are recommended for use with this processor. 
Alternatively, the ILFOLAB 2150RC table-top processor is recommended. ILFORD 2000TL developer and fixer are recommended for use with this processor. 

0ther processors 
This section is a guide to setting up processors for ILFORD resin coated papers using ILFORD 2000RT developer/replenisher and fixer/replenisher. These are diluted 1 +4 to make tank or replenisher solution. These suggestions are only a guide, and the processing cycle should be checked in the processor. For further guidance, contact your local ILFORD company or distributor. 

Suggested development times 
The preferred temperature range is 20-30C. 
Development time (sec) 
including transfer time to next tank
These times are for non-replenished systems, with a maximum solution life of seven days. They are also for replenished systems with a solution life of up to three months. The suggested developer replenishment rate is 150-200m1/m2 paper processed. 
Suggested fixing times 
The same times and temperatures as for development can be used for fixing. The actual fixing time, however, is shorter, and 20 seconds is ample above 20C. These recommendations are suitable for both replenished and non-replenished systems. In non-replenished systems, the maximum paper throughput is 4m2 per litre of working strength solution. The suggested fixer replenishment rate for replenished systems is 300-450m1/m2 of paper processed. The maximum silver concentration in the fixer bath is 4-6g/I. 
Note If fixing is not complete, then adequate washing is impossible. 

Washing times 
Wash for at least 15 seconds at temperatures above 5C. Set the water flow so as to fill the wash tank in 4 minutes or less. 

Hot air drying 
Use temperatures up to 85C. 

MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe responds in the same way as other resin coated papers to the usual techniques of toning, chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for resin coated papers. Full details on finishing resin coated papers are given in the fact sheet 'Processing B&W paper - RC papers'. 

Unprocessed paper 
Store unused MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe will keep in excellent condition for up to 2 years when stored as recommended. 

Prints MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. Print life will be shortened, however, in adverse storage conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. 
It is recommended that prints made for display are toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. Selenium toner is recommended as it has little effect on the image colour of MULTIGRADE IV RC DeLuxe, but other protection methods can be used including sulphide toning, silver image stabilisers and laminating. Full details on protecting prints made for display are given in the factsheet'Processing 88W paper RC papers' 

Artzone Index We express our gratitude to *  D & J Damkalidis S.A , distributor of ILFORD products in Greece for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 

Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis 
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved.  
First published date 15 July 1998  


Paperzone Index
* D & J Damkalidis S.A.  
44 Zefyrou str. Athens , Greece,  
Tel: +301 9410888  Fax: +301 9427058