Black and White Paper Guide


ILFORD MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE is a premium quality, variable contrast black and white paper which has a warm black image tone on a warm white base. It is especially suitable for toning. MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE has a 255g/m2 fibre base. 

MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE is part of the ILFORD MULTIGRADE system and is fully compatible with all existin MULTIGRADE filters and equipment. !t is equalgy suitable for printing from conventional bla k and white and XP2 negatives. 

MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE is available in double weight (1 K) glossy and 24K semi-matt surfaces. 

MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE is designed for use with all enlargers. 

Safelight recommendations 
MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE can be used with most common sofelights for black and white papers. The ILFORD safelights are especially recommended, however, as they generally allow darkrooms to be brighter, but completely safe, for MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE and many black and white papers. 

ILFORD safelights ore the ILFORC SL1 darkroom safelight or the ILFORD 902 (light brown) safelight filter fitted in a darkroom lomp (for example, the ILFORD DLlO or DL2O). A 15W bulb is recommended with these safelights. 

For direct lighting, do not expose the paper to the safelight for more than 4 minutes, and the distance beiween the paper and the safelight should be a minimum of 1 metre. 

Other safelight filters can be used, for example, the Kodak OC and the Agfa G7, or the Philips PF710 safelamp. 

Wedge spectrogram to tungsten light (2850 K) 

Contrast range 
Seven full grades of contrast, in half grade steps, are available on MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE paper when used with the ILFORD MULTIGRADE speed-matched filters. 

Exposing light sources 
MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE is designed for use with most enlargers and printers, that is, those fitted with either a tungsten or tungsten halogen light source. It is olso suitable for use with cold cathode (cold light) light sources designed for voriable contrast papers - further details are given in the fact sheet'Contrast control'. Other cold cathode (cold light) and pulsed xenon light sources may give a reduced contrast range. 

Contrast control 
Contrast is controlled by using MULTIGRADE hand filters, MULTIGRADE 500 equipment, other variable contrast enlarger heads or colour enlarger heads. Full details on contrast control with MULTIGRADE papers are given in the fact sheet `Contrast control'. 

The twelve MULTIGRADE filters are numbered 00-5 in 1/2 steps, with the lowest filter number corresponding to the softest contrast. The exposure time for filters 00-31/2 is the same; that for filters 4,5 is double. 

The very sophisticated ILFORD MULTIGRADE 500 exposing system replaces the standard lamphouse on most professional enlargers. 

Characteristic curves 
  MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE glossy paper exposed through filters 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Developer: MULTIGRADE diluted 1+9. Development: 2 minutes at 20C. 

MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE is processed in the same way as other fibre base papers. Further details on processing fibre base papers are given in the fact sheet 'Processing B&W paper - FB papers'. 
Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous when used correctly. Always follow the health and safety recommendations on the packoging. Photochemicals material safety data sheets containing full details for the safe handling, disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals are available from ILFORD. 
The image colour of MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE can be varied with the choice of developer and the processing technique used. 
Processing summary (intermittent aqitation)
MULTIGRADE developer 
MULTIGRADE developer 
BROMOPHEN developer






1 1/2-3 


1 1/2-3

Stop bath
IN-1 1+39 18-24 5-l0sec
Fresh, running water - Above 5 60
See the 'Processing summary' for development recommendations. 
On correctly exposed prints with MULTIGRADE developer 1+9, the image will begin to appear after 35 seconds. Development can be extended up to 6 minutes without any noticeable change in contrast or fog. 
To give greater control during development, and for economy, the 1 +1 4 dilution of MULTIGRADE developer can be used. 
The choice of developer affects the image colour of MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE paper. From the ILFORD range of developers, warmest results are achieved with MULTIGRADE and BROMOPHEN developers. 
MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE paper can also be processed in other high quality dish developers such as ILFORD PQ UNIVERSAL. 

Stop bath 
See the 'Processing summary' for stop bath recommendations. 
A stop bath stops development immediately, reduces the risk of staining (which might not show until after toning) and extends the life of the fixer bath. The use of a stop bath is especially recommended with MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE, as this paper carries over more developer to the next bath than other ILFORD fibre base papers. 
A water rinse can be used instead of a stop bath, but it must be changed frequently to avoid processing marks (which might not show until after toning). 

F ixation 
See the 'Processing summary' for fixing recommendations. 
The use of a hardening fixer is not recommended as it reduces washing efficiency, may impair toning performance and gives a cooler image tone. ILFORD PAPER FIXER is a non-hardening fixer. 
There is no benefit in extending fixation beyond the recommended time; some loss of print quality might be seen when long fixing times are given due to image etching. Also, long fixing times will affect the image colour of the paper. 

See the 'Processing summary' for washing recommendations. 
Short washing times, for example, when using a washing aid, will give a cooler image colour than longer washing times. For warmest results, always wash prints for at least 30 minutes. 

A final rinse in ILFORD ILFOTOL, diluted 1 +200 with water, will aid even and rapid drying. After washing, squeegee prints on both sides to remove surplus water. Prints can then be air-dried at room temperature, glazed or heat-dried. However, the use of belt print dryers and photographic blotters is not recommended as there is a risk that prints will stick to them. If a belt print dryer must be used, fix the prints using a hardening fixer; however, this will have the drawbacks explained under 'Fixation' . 

Toning prints creates an aesthetic effect and, in some cases, can help to protect the print from external contaminants - see 'Optimum permanence'. MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE is receptive to a wide range of toners and can be toned to give subtle colour changes or dramatic efFects. Especially recommended are polysulphide toners, such as Kodak Brown Toner or Agfa Viradon, and selenium toners. Other toners can be used to create different effects. Follow the instructions supplied with the toner. 

The standard fixing and washing recommendations will give excellent print permanence for all commercial needs. When optimum permanence is needed, perhaps for archival storage of prints, the following fixing and washing sequences at 18-24C (including wash water) are recommended using ILFORD GALERIE WASHAID. Do not add a hardener to the fixer. Be careful not to exceed the capacity of the fixer and not to extend the fixing time as both these make washing more difficult. 
0ptimum permanence sequence 
intermittent agitation
1 min 
First wash Fresh, running water 5min
Washing aid 
intermittent agitation
Final wash Fresh, running water 5min*
* Extend to 30 minutes if the warmest image colour is needed. 
0ptimum permanence sequence 
with selenium toner
intermittent agitation,
1 min 
Selenium toner diluted with 
working strength GALERIE 
WASHAID instead of water, 
intermittent agitation 
* min 
intermittent agitation 
Final wash Fresh, running water 30min
* Tone the print for the appropriate time to achieve the depth of colour needed. 

For optimum permanence with other toners that give a protective effect, for example, sulphide (sepia), polysulphide and some metal replacement toners (gold and platinum), use the optimum permanence sequence above and then tone the print as desired. 
Note Other metal replacement toners such as blue (iron) and red (copper) toner may not give extra protection as the image might fade. Dye toners do not give extra protection. 

MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE responds in the same way as other fibre base papers to the usual techniques of chemical reduction and retouching. It can be mounted using the standard techniques for fibre base papers. Further details on finishing fibre base papers are given in the fact sheet 'Processing B&W paper - FB papers'. 


Unprocessed paper 
Store unused MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE paper in a cool, dry place in its original packaging. Avoid conditions of high temperature and/or high humidity. MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE will keep in excellent condition for up to two years when stored as recommended. 

MULTIGRADE FB WARMTONE prints which have been processed as recommended in this leaflet will have a more than adequate storage life for most purposes. Print life will be shortened, however, 'in adverse storoge conditions, or if the print is exposed to oxidising gases. 
It is recommended that prints made for display are toned to protect them from the oxidising gases that are found in many environments. However, not all toners protect the image. Toners with a protective effect include selenium, sulphide and polysulphide toners. Other protection methods can be used including silver image stabilisers and laminating. Full details on protecting prints made for display are given in the fact sheet 'Processing B&W paper - FB papers'. 

Artzone Index We express our gratitude to *  D & J Damkalidis S.A , distributor of ILFORD products in Greece for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 

Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis 
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved.  
First published date 15 July 1998  


Paperzone Index
* D & J Damkalidis S.A.   
44 Zefyrou str. Athens , Greece,   
Tel: +301 9410888  Fax: +301 9427058