Black and White Paper Guide
 
 
KODABROMIDE PA P E R 

KODABROMIDE Paper is a fast, graded-contrast, black-and white paper with a fiber base. It is designed for commercial, industrial, professional, and press photography applications. The paper is designed for enlarging, but with reduced illumination, you can use it for contact printing. 
It is available in F (contrast grades 1-5) surface in a variety of sheet and roll sizes. 

 
FEATURES BENEFITS
  • Neutral-black image tone
  • White fiber base
  • High speed
  • Exceptional print quality
  • Crisp, clean whites
  • Short exposure times

BASE AND SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
 
Symbol Texture Surface Base 
Tint
Base 
Weight
F Smooth Glossy* White SW, DW
*When ferrotyped. This paper dries with a smooth lustre when dried on screens, blotters, or non-ferrotyping dryers. 

Contrast Grades 
 
With this type of negative:  Use paper with 
this grade number:
High contrast 
Normal contrast 
Low contrast 
Very low contrast 
Extremely low contrast or line work
1 
2 
3 
4 
5
 

SAFELIGHT RECOMMENDATIONS 

Use a KODAK OC Safelight Filter (light amber) in a suitable safelight lamp with a bulb of 15 watts or less at least 4 feet (1.2 metres) from the paper. Minimize safelight exposure to avoid unwanted quality changes. 
Be especially careful if you use other types of safelights. See KODAK Publication No. K-4, How Safe Is Your Safelight?, for information on safelight testing. 
Note: Do not use a KODAK OA Safelight Filter (greenish yellow). 

STORAGE AND HANDLING 
Store paper in a cool; dry place (preferably at or below 70F [21C] and at a relative humidity of 30 to 50 percent). High temperatures or high humidity may produce undesirable changes. Always rewrap unused paper in its original packaging (the outer box as well as the inner wrapper) to protect it from light and moisture. Avoid or shield the paper from exposure to radioactivity or x-rays. 

EXPOSURE 
Light Sources 
Expose this paper with tungsten or tungsten-halogen enlarger lamps. You can use other light sources, such as cool-white fluorescent lamps, mercury-vapor lamps (cold light), or cathode-ray tubes. For best results, make test prints to determine the exposure time for each light source. 

ISO PAPER SPEED AND RANGE 

Tray Processing-Processed in KODAK DEKTOL Developer (1:2) at 68F (20C) for 90 seconds. 
 
Surface & 
Contrast
ISO Paper 
Speed
ISO Paper 
Range
F1 
F2 
F3 
F4 
F5
P500 
P320 
P200 
P160 
P125
R130 
R110 
R90 
R70 
R60
  
PROCESSING 
Tray 
Tray develop with continuous agitation at 68F (20C), using the appropriate dilution and development time recommended in the following table. 
Note: Machine processing of KODABROMIDE Paper is not recommended. 
 
KODAK 
Chemical
Dilution 
(chemical: 
water)
Time 
(min:sec)
Capacity 
(8 x 10-inch 
Prints 
per gal/L)
Developer 68F (20C)
DEKTOL (powder) 
POLYMAX T
1:2 
1:9
1:30 
1:30
120/32 
120/32
Stop Bath-65 to 75F (18 to 24C)
Indicator 
EKTAFLO
1:64 
1:31
0:15 
0:15
80/20* 
80/20*
Fixer (single bath)t -65 to 75F (18 to 24C)
Non-hardening fixer (for general printing and for toning):
Rapid Fixer, 
Solution A (do not  
use Solution B)
1:7 5:00 100/26
Hardening fixers (for general printing):#
KODAK Fixer 
POLYMAX T 
Rapid Fixer(Solution A and B) 
KODAFIX Solution
- 
1:7 
1:7 
1:7
10:00 
5:00 
5:00 
5:00
100/26 
100/26 
100/26 
100/26
Wash-
With Washing Aid-50 to 86F (10 to 30C): 
Hypo Clearing Agent stock 
solution 1:4
3:00-DW; 
2:00-SW
80/20 without 
pre-rinse; 
200/50 with 
1-minute 
pre-rinse
Wash - 20:00-DW; 
10:00-SW
-
Without Washing Aid-50 to 86F (10 to 30C): 
- 60:00 -
*Discard the solution when color changes to a purplish blue. 
tTo increase capacity, use two fixing baths. 
#A hardening fixer may improve release on ferrotyping drums. 

Stop Bath 
Bathe prints for at least 15 seconds at 65 to 75F (18 to 24C) with continuous agitation in KODAK EKTAFLO Stop Bath, KODAK Indicator Stop Bath, or 48 mL KODAK 28% Acetic Acid and water to make 1 L. 
With EKTAFLO or Indicator Stop Bath, discard the solution when the color changes to a purplish blue. Change Acetic Acid and water stop bath after approximately twenty 8 x 10-inch prints per litre (eighty 8 x 10-inch prints per gallon). 

Fixing  
Fix prints at 65 to 75F (18 to 24C) with frequent agitation. With KODAK POLYMAX T Fixer, KODAK Iapid Fixer (Solution A and B), or KODAFIX Solution, if you use two fixing baths, fix prints for 21/2 minutes in each bath, draining for 5 seconds between baths. Fix for 
5 minutes if you use a single bath. 
With KODAK Fixer, if you use two fixing baths, fix prints for 5 minutes in each bath, draining for 5 seconds between baths. Fix for 10 minutes if you use a single bath. 
Note: Using a hardening fixer makes toning less efficient. For the same amount of processing time, you'll see less of a toning effect. 

Washing  
Wash for one hour in running water at 50 to 86F 
(10 to 30C), interleaving the prints carefully and frequently. The wash-water flow rate should provide at least one complete change of water in the container every 5 minutes. The KODAK Automatic Tray Siphon provides proper movement and agitation during washing. 
Avoid prolonged washing and soaking times to minimize physical damage to the prints. 
To reduce time and conserve water, use KODAK Hypo Clearing Agent before washing. Transfer the prints, with or without a previous rinse, to the clearing agent. Following the Hypo Clearing Agent, wash double-weight prints for 20 minutes (single-weight prints for 10 minutes) with agitation and normal water flow. 

Drying 
Remove as much surface water as possible from prints and dry the prints in a dust-free place. Place prints face down on a cheesecloth, fiberglass, or plastic screen racks; between photo blotters; or on a belt dryer. 
For glossy prints made on F-surface paper, transfer the wet prints directly from the wash to a ferrotype dryer (glazing machine) or to clean, wet ferrotype plates. Squeegee the prints into close contact with the plates and allow them to dry. 

Characteristic Curves 

 
NOTICE: The sensitometric curves and data in this publication represent product tested under the conditions of exposure and processing specified. They are representative of production coatings, and therefore do not apply directly to a particular box or roll of photographic material. They do not represent standards or specifications that must be met by Eastman Kodak Company. The company reserves the right to change and improve product characteristics at any time. 

TONING 
Treatment with a toner extends the life of prints that may be exposed to oxidizing gases or subjected to adverse storage or display conditions. KODAK Toners will protect prints whether or not they produce a tone shift. 

  
   
 
Processing Tone Shift with KODAK Toners 
Full Slight None
Tray 
(DEKTOL 
Developer)
Sepia POLY TONER  
(1:24) 
(1:50)
POLY TONER 
1:4
Brown (1:19) Rapid 
Selenium 
(1:3) 
(1:9) 
(1:20 
(1:40)
For more information on toning, see KODAK Publication G-23, Toning KODAK Black-and-White Materials. It explains the technique of toning, and describes Kodak toners and their effects on Kodak black-and-white papers and films. 
 

 
Artzone Index We express our gratitude to * Kodak (Near East) Inc. for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 


Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis 
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved.  
First published date 15 July 1998  

 

Paperzone Index
 
* Kodak (Near East) Inc.   
P.O.Box 8253, Athens 100 10 Greece    
Tel: +301 6898620 Fax: +301 6898635