Black and White Paper Guide

MACO expo G 
MACO structura LUX 

A short summary of attributes of these black & white photographic papers: 

- MACO expo G is a traditional silverbromide-photographic paper, produced under consideration of modern technologies and offers: 

* unsurpassed cold image tone without tendency to blue blacks 
* extensive tonals scale 
* uncompromisingly graded 
* low fog level 
* high silver content with addition of Goldchloride 
* extremly thick fiberbase with noble surface 
* maximum archival quality 
* available in sheets from 8,9 x 12,7cm to 50,8 x 61cm (3,5"x5"-20"x24") and in 108 cm (42,5") wide rolls. 

- MACO structura LUX is a supple linen-cloth fabric with a silverbromide photographic emulsion having a precious wrinkle structure. It has been designed for various applications and offers: 
* unsurpassed cold image tone without tendency to blueish blacks 
* sewable for "infinite" large decorations 
* expressive image effect due to textile fabric 
* for creative applications fur kreative Anwendungen, can be painted over 
* suited for standard prints as well as for display purposes (backlighting) 
* available in sheets from 12,7 x 17,8 to 50,8x61cm (5"x7"-20"x24") and in 125cm (49,2") wide rolls 

1. General data of the light sensitive photographic emulsion: 
MACO expo G (available in grades 2, 3 and 4): 
MACO structura LUX (available in grade 3): 
- silverbromideemulsion. 
- high silver content. 
- high speed 
2. Description of surfaces: 
MACO expo G: 
- Super-high gloss finish by hot drying, e.g. with MACO ecomat TP5060. 
- Natural gloss by air drying. 
- Natural gloss by hot drying, emulsion side facing cloth.
MACO structura LUX: 
- textile surface by air drying, can be dried by using wooden frames 
- can be smoothened by using an iron on the backside set on low temperature (taking special care not to melt the emulsion) 
4. Image tone of the photographic emulsion: 
MACO expo G and MACO structura LUX have an emulsion mth cold image tone. Withm limits it can be manipulated by use of different developers. 
For example: 
MACO ecoprint 
Calbe MH 28 
- cold image tone 
- warm image tone 
- very warm image tone 
- cold image tone 
5. Tone of the fiberbase materials: 
MACO expo G 
MACO structura LUX
white basematerial 
white basematerial 
6. Paper ISO-Speed / ISO-Range: 
Paper ISO-Speed / ISO-Range
MACO expo G
Grade 2 
Grade 3 
Grade 4
P 200 
P 200 
P 150
R 110 
R 90 
R 70
MACO structura LUX:
Grade 3 approx. P 200 R 80
7. Maximum density: 
Glossy surfaces (expo G) naturally achieve highest values. Textile surface-values can only be determined with approximation using densitometers. 
Following approximate values have been determined with a negative gamma 0,60 in combination with the paper developer LABOR PARTNER LP-BROM 1 : 
MACO expo G 
MACO structura LUX 
: Dmax. 2,30 
: Dmax. 1,75 
Depending on types of developers and aftertreatment in LP-SELENIA above values may be higher or lower. 
8. Weight and type of basematerial : 
MACO expo G 

             245 Grams fiberbase + 
approx. 20 Grams Baryta coating + 
approx. 40 Grams Emulsion/protective coating +
total weight = approx. 300 Grams 
MACO structura LUX = supple linen textile fabric 
9. Coating structure: (top to bottom) 

MACO expo G: 
1 .coating: 
2. coating: 
3. coating: 
4. coating: 
5. base: 
6. backside:
A- protective coating 
B- protective coating with UV-absorbents etc.. 
lightsensitive emulsion coating, hardened. 
Bariumsulphate-separation coating. 
premium fiberbase. 
specially prepared for waterbased adhesives and writing. 
MACO structura LUX: 
1. coating: 
2. coating: 
3. coating: 
4. coating: 
5. coating: 
6. base: 
7. backside:
A- protective coating 
B- protective coating with UV-absorbents etc.. 
lightsensitive emulsion coating, hardened. 
white reflection layer 
Bariumsulphate-separation coating. 
Linen-viscose fabric. 
specially prepared for waterbased adhesives 
10. Toning: 
MACO expo RF, expo RN and expo WA are better suited than MACO expo RR and should be preferred for toning and experimental treatments. 
Deep, brown blacks: 
A. Treatment in PEERLESS Wasserfarben. 
B. Applying the "MLD"-Lith procedure. 
Light brown/yellowish: 
A. Toning in LABOR PARTNER LP-SEPIA with added vinegar. 
Bluetoning: A. Toning in LABOR PARTNER LP-AZUR 
A. Increase of maximum density. 
B. Improvement of archival qualities. 
C. Change of image tone. 
In regard of gelatine-toning, whether partially or full coverage, PEERLESS-Watercolors(USA) have been proven more than a century. 

11. Retouching: 
For retouching purposes, PEERLESS-Watercolors "DRY SPOT SET" are recommended. These colors can easily be adapted to the image tone and will leave no traces or marks on top of the emulsion. 

12. Darkroom safety light: 
Filter red or yellow-green. Max. 15 Watts, minimum distance safelight to tray 120 cm. 

13. Informations for processing: 
MACO expo G and MACO structura LUX are designed for tray processing. All available high quality photochemistry may be used. Best results are possible with MACO and LABOR PARTNER photochemistry. 
Note: The whiteners used for improving intensity of whites are to some degree water soluble. Long washing times (over 30 minutes) may weaken the intensity of the whites. 

MACO structura LUX: 
Photolinen will be processed like baryta-fiberbase papers but 
* it can be folded during processing. Therefore one can fold for example a sheet 50x60cm (20x24 ) into a tray measuring 30x40cm (approx. 11 x14") (ask for further hints under our HOT-LINE) 
* it differs greatly from conventional photographic papers due to the remarkably different textile basematerial. This is supported by wrinkles and other fabric attributes 
* just like any other new textile fabric, it can shrink somewhat during wet processing. This should be kept in mind before deciding on printing size. 
* by exposing this product one should bear in mind that textile fabric is by far more translucent than fiberbase material - therefore one should use easels with black or dark grey base or place a black cardboard beneath the photolinen before exposing it. 

14. Storage: 
Original MACO packages, once opened, should be stored in a cool and dry place. Packages feature easy opening opposite of label, punches under the lid allow for easy closing. 

15. General informations about MACO-Products: 
By sending a sufficiently stamped envelope with the address, one can receive technical application sheets about all MACO Products, of which some have been mentioned here. 

TA expo G/ structura LUX 
Errors, or omissions regarding technical progress, remain excepted. 

MACO PHOTO PRODUCTS is a Division of HANS O. MAHN & CO., P.O. Box 105202, D-20036 Hamburg Hotline: 040-237 008-88 


Artzone Index We express our gratitude to * S. Skiadopoulos & Co. distributor of MACO products in Greece for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 

Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved. 
First published date 15 July 1998 


Paperzone Index
* S. Skiadopoulos & Co.  
251 Imittou str. Athens 116 32, Greece ,   
Tel: +301 7260485 Fax: +301 7260487