Black and White Paper Guide

MACO expo RR 
MACO expo RF 
MACO expo RN 
MACO expo WA 

A short summary of attributes of these Black & White photographic papers: 
* intensive image tone with warm blacks 
* graded 
* warmwhite basematerial (expo RR, RF, RN) 
* cream (chamois) tinted basematerial (expo WA) 
* noble premium-weight photographic fiber base 
* free of optical brighteners (expo RF+RN + WA) 
* free of developing agents (expo RF+RN + WA) 
* free of whiteners (expo RF+RN + WA ) 
* high silver content among others responsible for comparably high paper speed, therefore suited for murals 
* Availability of different surfaces 
* unique image results by application of Lith-processing (expo R group) 
(Informations to the "MLD" procedure can be found in the technical appl. Sheet TA-MLD, which can be called for) 

1. General data of the light sensitive photographic emulsion: 
Type: -Chlorobromide-Emulsion. 
-Traditional Type, but with higher speed than "former" Portrait-Papers(e.g. ORIENTAL New SEAGULL PORTRAIT between P50+P64) 
-high silver content, depending on the grade between 1,7 bis 2,2 Grams/m2 
-special additives for the "MLD"-technique 
-special additives for treatment with LP-SELENIA (Selenium toning).
RF+ RN + WA:  *The lightsensitive emulsion contains no optical brighteners ! Contains no whiteners. Contains no developing agents.
Due to these aspects , the paper types expo RF + expo RN + expo WA are especially well suited for the demands of Fine-Art-Photography and archival storage. 
RR:  This paper version will be preferably used in professional finishing and portrait photography areas. For these applications MACO expo RR has been specially modified for: 
short processing time, sturdy requirements such as prolonged washing- and drying times high drying temperatures and and use of water based adhesives for wide rolls or murals.
Due to these needs MACO expo RR contains all additives, which have been left out at expo RF, expo RN and expo WA. 

2. Assortment of surfaces: 
Filigree glossy:
MACO expo RF 
MACO expo RN + MACO expo WA 
MACO expo RR
3. Description of surfaces: 
MACO expo R is available in three different surfaces and MACO expo WA in one surface: 
MACO expo RF 
 - Super-high gloss finish by hot drying, e.g. with MACO ecomat TP5060. 
- Natual gloss by air drying. 
- Silky gloss by hot drying, emulsion side facing cloth.
MACO expo RN 
 - Deep matte by hot + cold drying. 
This surface attribute has been achieved by the special SUPERCOATING: 
In addition to adding matting additives to the photographic emulsion itself, these areadded to the protective coating as well.
MACO expo RR  - Filigree glossy, by hot + cold drying, emulsion side facing cloth
MACO expo WA  - Matte by hot + cold drying, emulsion side facing cloth
4. Image tone of the photographic emulsion: 
 Warm, neutral blacks. Can be manipulated by use of different developers. 
For example:
MACO ecoprint 
Calbe MH 28 
MACOLITH-Entwickler Typ 690*
- cold image tone 
 - warm image tone 
 - very warm image tone 
 - cold image tone 
 - brown-black image tone/special lith effect
* By using expo RN + RF
5. Tone of the fiberbase materials: 
MACO expo RR + RF + RN  = warmwhite tone. Base without optical brighteners. Without whiteners.
MACO expo WA  = cream (chamois) tinted base.
6. Paper  ISO-Speed /  ISO-Range:
MACO expo RR + RF + RN:
Grade 2 
Grade 3 
Grade 4
 P 125/150 
 P 125 
 R 110 
 R 90 
 R70 (expo RF only)
MACO expo WA:
Grade 2 approx. 
Grade 3 approx.
 P 60 
 P 60
R 110 
R 90

7. Maximum density: 
Glossy surfaces (expo RF) naturally achieve highest values, followed by filigree (silky) surfaces (expo RR). Matte surfaces naturally achieve lower values whereat expo RN + expo WA have an excellent maximum density for matte papers. 
Following approximate values have been determined with a negative gamma 0,60 in combination with the paper developer LABOR PARTNER LP-BROM 1 : 
MACO expo RF: 
MACO expo RN: 
MACO expo RR: 
MACO expo WA:
Dmax. 2,25 
Dmax 1 ,75 
Dmax. 2,00 
Dmax. 1,75
Depending on types of developers and after treatment in LP-SELENIA above values may be higher or lower. 

8. Weight of fiberbase material /total weight: 
MACO expo RF+RN and MACO WA =  

                                            total weight = 

245 Grams fiberbase + 
approx. 20 Grams Baryta coating + 
approx. 40 Grams Emulsion/protective coating 
approx. 300 Grams
MACO expo RR                                    = 

                                            total weight =

205 Grams fiberbase + 
approx. 20 Grams Baryta coating + 
approx. 40 Grams Emulsion/protective coating 
approx. 265 Grams
9. Coating structure: (top to bottom) 
1. coating: 

2. coating: 
3. coating: 
4. coating: 
5. base: 
6. backside: 

"Supercoating" protective coating (expo RN + expo WA) 
Improves mechanical resistance during wet processing by special hardening additives. Improves 
hot drying capability. 
protective coating with UV-absorbents etc.. 
lightsensitive emulsion coating, hardened. 
Bariumsulphate-separation coating. 
fiberbase material. 
specially prepared for waterbased adhesives and writing. 
10. Toning: 
MACO expo RF, expo RN and expo WA are better suited than MACO expo RR and should be preferred for toning and experimental treatments. 
Deep, brown blacks: 

Light brown/yellowish: 



A. Treatment in PEERLESS Watercolors. 
B. Applying the "MLD"-Lith procedure. 

A. Toning in LABOR PARTNER LP-SEPIA with added vinegar. 


A. Increase of maximum density. 
B. Improvement of archival qualities. 
C. Change of image tone.

In regard of gelatine-toning, whether partially or full coverage, PEERLESS-Watercolors(USA) have been proven more than a century. 
11. Retouching: 
Retouching the glossy expo RF, PEERLESS-Watercolors "DRY SPOT SET" are recommended. These colors can easily be adapted to the image tone and will leave no traces or marks on top of the emulsion. 
Ideally suited for retouching is the deep matte surface of expo RN and the matte expo WA ! Kniferetouching, air brushing, standard brush or soft pencil spotting are possible! 

12. Darkroom safety light: 
Filter red or yellow-green. Max. 15 Watts, minimum distance safelight to tray 120 cm. 

13. Informations for processing: 
MACO expo RR, RF, RN und MACO WA are designed for tray processing. All available high quality photochemistry may be used. Best results are possible with MACO and LABOR PARTNER photochemistry. 

Note: The dye used for the cream tinted base at MACO expo WA is to some degree water soluble. Long washing times (more than 30 minutes ) may weaken the   intensity of the cream tint. 

For optimum washing results we recommed the MACO ecowash printwasher. This washer is based on newest research of archival washing techniques and saves up to 80% water compared to conventionally needed water quantities while fully complying with international standards in regard of thiosulphate values. 

Professional users will dry larger print quantities by use of a dryer. For these applications MACO offers the MACO ecomat TP5060, a dryer designed especially for high quality demands. Due to excellent drying results it is recommendable to exchange older dryers against the ecomat. 

14. Storage: 
Original MACO packages, once opened, should be stored in a cool and dry place. Packages feature easy opening opposite of label, punches under the lid allow for easy closing. 

15. General informations about MACO-Products: 
By sending a sufficiently stamped envelope with the address, one can receive technical application sheets about all MACO Products, of which some have been mentioned here. 

TA expo R TA-No. 13111 January 1998 
Errors, or omissions regarding technical progress, remain excepted. 
MACO PHOTO PRODUCTS is a Division of HANS O. MAHN & CO., P.O. Box 105202, D-20036 Hamburg 
Hotline: 040-237 008-88 


Artzone Index We express our gratitude to * S. Skiadopoulos & Co. distributor of MACO products in Greece for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 

Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved. 
First published date 15 July 1998 


Paperzone Index
* S. Skiadopoulos & Co.  
251 Imittou str. Athens 116 32, Greece ,   
Tel: +301 7260485 Fax: +301 7260487