Black and White Paper Guide
Fiber-based Paper
New Seagull G is the finest paper to be produced by current photographic materials technology. On a thick, strong baryta base paper, images with sharp, vivid highlights, deep shadows and between them unlimited shades of gray are produced which have received the highest praise from photographers around the world. New Seagull G is a black and white paper which has reached the peak of quality and has achieved the highest reputation.
New Seagull G paper can be used for archiving, original prints, exhibition prints and for other special uses.

For general-use enlargers with yellow-green filters, 15W bulbs should be used and the safelight should be at least one meter from the enlarger. New Seagull G is a high sensitive paper and should not be exposed more than 10 minutes. Be careful with prints after they have been exposed.

Correct exposure times depend on the characteristics of the negatives being printed. To get good final prints, various exposure levels should be tested first.

Sensitivity and gradient
Grade ISO Speed ISO Range
No.2 P640 R100
No.3 P400 R80
No.4 P200 R60

Standard processing conditions
Process Processing temperature Processing time
Development 20+_ 0.5 C 90~120 sec.
Stop bath 18~21 C 15~30 sec
Fixing 18~21 C  5~10 min.
Washing 18~25 C approx. 90 min.
Drying Natural Drying

(1 ) Developers
Almost all of the widely used commercially available
developers for use with regular printing paper can be used
(D-72, etc.) and will retain their usual characteristics.
Product Dilution Temperature Time
D-72 1 :2 20 C 90 sec.
ID-62 1 :1 20 C 90 sec.
D-52 1 :1 20 C 120 sec.

The developing times and temperatures will consist of the various combinations shown in the table above. However, temperatures can be as high as 30 C. In such cases, the developing time is about 1/3 of the length indicated in the table above. When development takes place at 20 C and exceeds a period of ten minutes, fogging occurs and the tonal gradations disappear and the unique features of New Seagull G are lost.
(2) Exposure and development times
New Seagull G has a relatively wide exposure range.Compared with standard exposure times, they range from 1/2 to 2 times. When these longer or shorter times are used, development times will become shorter or longer and no problems will be encountered.
1/2 exposure D-72 (1:2) 20 C 8 min.
Standard exposure D-72 (1 :2) " 90 sec.
2X D-72(1:2) " 30 sec .

Stop bath
For the stop bath, a solution of 1 .5% of glacial acetic acid is used. Time: 15 to 30 seconds.
Water 1 liter
Glacial acetic acid 15 ml

(1 ) Fixer:
Prepared fixer is recommended but, if you are preparing your own fixer, either use an acid hardening fixer containing sodium thiosulfate (hypo) or a rapid fixer containing ammonium thiosulfate.
(2) Conditions
Fixing is either a one-bath or a two-bath process.
One bath 20 C 5 -10 minutes
Two-bath 20 C 3 - 5 minutes (for each bath)
Keep the total fixing time to ten minutes or less. If the time exceeds 10 minutes, there will be bleaching of the shadow image and a slight softening of gradation. If you use a rapid fixer containing ammonium thiosulphate, fixing time should be kept to within 60~120 seconds (20 C)
Types of paper
Type Base paper Weight Texture Tint Image tone Grade
G Fiber-based Double weight Glossy, smooth White Jet black 2~4

Prints should be washed for 90 minutes. While they are in the bath, take care that the prints do not become placed one on top of the other.
If you use a hypo-cleaning agent, washing time can be reduced by half. For shortening washing time, after fixing, wash in running water for five minutes. Then use a 2% anhydrous sodium sulfite solution at 20 C for 2~3 minutes and wash in running water for 45 minutes.

For drying New Seagull G prints, natural drying should be used. Place the prints on a clean surface and drain the water off. Then dry them by placing them on glass or some other suitable surface. If you are using a Ferro-type dryer, dry the prints using a wetting agent to remove drops of water and then slowly dry at surface temperatures of 50 C or less. If the prints are dried too rapidly, the Ferro-type dryer works less effectively and the maximum density tones of the image will be affected. If you have used a rapid fixer containing ammonium thiosulphate, you should not use a Ferro-type dryer.

New Seagull G prints can be toned using in a wide variety of ways. They are not easily damaged by contaminants and the intensity of the image is seldom lowered. However, it is important to remember that is it better to use a new non hardening fixer and use a hypo-cleaning agent.
If the objective is to store photographic images for long periods of time, selenium toners are recommended which further enhance the contrast of the shadow tones and lengthen the life of the photographic image.

Always store photographic paper in a cool, dry place. It is also effective to put a desiccant in a package which has been opened to keep the paper dry. The paper should be used quickly after the package has been opened.
Be careful to avoid exposing the paper for long periods to a safelight, or letting the emulsion side come into contact with fingers.

New Seagull G Characteristic curve Spectral sensitivity


New Seagull G No.2


New Seagull G No.3



Artzone Index We express our gratitude to * Oriental Photo Co Europe for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 

Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved. 
First published date 31 August 1998 


Paperzone Index
* Oriental Photo Co Europe.  

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