Black and White Paper Guide
Fiber-based Paper

New Seagull Select VC-FB
By using filters, it is possible to control the tones of the finished New Seagull Select VC-FB with this variable contrast print paper. With one type of paper, it is possible to handle a broad range of tones (#0~#5). Similar to New Seagull G which has gained world-wide acclaim,
you can reproduce intense white and deep black images. The product is made using baryta paper which will produce elegant prints and can be used for original prints and commercial photographs and works
especially well for print archiving.

15W bulbs should be used. A Kodak OC or a Ilford 5902 Safelight filter are recommended. The safelight should be at least 1 .2 meter from the bed of the enlarger or developer. After exposure, be careful not to expose the emulsion side of the print to light.

Light source
In the case of VC-FB, a tungsten or halogen light source can be used. VC-FB is designed to be usable with a dichroic color head. A magenta light source produces a high contrast and a yellow light source produces low contrast. When using your own dichroic head, do some testing before making a final decision on level of contrast.(Table 1)

Correct exposure times depend on the characteristics of the negatives being printed. To get good final prints, test prints at various exposure levels should be made first.
Exposure times depend on the type of filter being used. For filters ranging from #0 to 3 1/2, prints can be made at about the same exposure times. For #4~#5 filters, exposure times should be 1 .5 times that used for the other filters.
When using a cool light head, adjustment must be made for the light source and the photographic paper by using adding a Kodak CC Filter-40Y

Sensitivity and gradient
ISO Speed ISO Range
P100 - 400 R 60 - 160

Standard processing conditions
Process Processing temperature Processing time
Development 20+_0.5 C 90~120 sec.
Stop bath 18~21C 15~30 sec.
Fixing 18~21 C 5~10 min.
Washing 18~25 C about 90 min.
Drying Natural drying or Ferro-type dryer

For VC-FB paper, it is possible to use almost all commercially available developing solutions (D-72, etc.). The developing conditions depend on the chemicals and dilution level of the developer. Care should be taken to avoid over-developing which raises the fog and lowers contrast.

Stop bath
For the stop bath, a solution of 1 .5% of glacial acetic acid is used. Time: 15 to 30 seconds.
Water 1 liter
Glacial acetic acid 15 ml

Prepared fixer is recommended but, if you are preparing your own fixer, either use an acid hardening fixer containing sodium thiosulfate (hypo) or a rapid fixer containing ammonium thiosulfate.

Prints should be washed for 90 minutes. While they are in the bath, take care that the prints do not become placed one on top of the other.
If you use a hypo-cleaning agent, washing time can be reduced by half. For shortening washing time, after fixing, wash in running water for five minutes. Then use 2% anhydrous sodium sulfite solution at 20 C for 2~3 minutes and wash in running water for 45 minutes.

For drying VC-FB prints, natural drying should be used. If you are using a Ferro-type dryer, set it at a temperature below 50 C.

VC-FB prints can be toned using in a wide variety of ways. If the objective is to store photographic images for long periods of time, selenium toners are recommended.

Types of paper
Type Base paper  Weight Texture Tint Image tone
FB Fiber-based Double weight Glossy, smooth White Jet black
Always store photographic paper in a cool, dry place. It is also effective to put a desiccant in a package which has been opened to keep the paper dry.
The paper should be used quickly after the package has been opened.
Be careful to avoid exposing the paper for long periods to a safelight, or letting the emulsion side come into contact with fingers.

(Table 1)Comparison of filters and light sources
VC Filter
Ilford Multiple
Grade Filter
Kodak CC Filter Durst Omega
D5500 Color Head
0 0 80Y 110Y
1 /2 1 /2 55Y 90Y
1 1 30Y 70Y
1 1/2 1 1 /2 15Y 30Y
2 2 0 0
2 1/2 2 1/2 25M 30M
3 3 40M 45M
3 1/2 3 1/2 65M 55M
4 4 100M 95M
4 1/2 4 1/2 150M 130M
5 5 200M 170M
Use 47B to obtain maximum contrast

Characteristics curve
Spectral sensitivity




Artzone Index We express our gratitude to * Oriental Photo Co Europe for giving to us the permission to present the above material. 

Concept and Design by Elias Eliadis
Copyright 1998 Black & White Art Zone. All Rights Reserved. 
First published date 31 August 1998 


Paperzone Index
* Oriental Photo Co Europe.  

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Tel: (44) 1865 243802  Fax: (44)1716 812310